India is among the most amazing countries in the world. Along with its many landmarks, different religions and customs, one of the things that attract us there is the shopping. Actually, it is a real adventure. The big street markets are a real attraction in the second most populous country – colorful, diverse, rich and temptingly cheap. Typical for them are the many people, the big noise, the different smells. In a couple of words – an absolute chaos. What’s sure is that shopping in India is fun and stress relieving.
Every year millions of tourists from the whole world take a trip to India in order to see Taj Mahal and to get closer to this great love story.
The typical Bollywood genre – the Masala films – appear in the 70's. This is a mixed film genre, which contains action, comedy, love story, melodrama and reminds a lot about musicals.
Made out of red stone and covering an area of 380 000 sq.m. Agra Fort astonishes with its architecture. It is a mixture of Persian, European and Indian ornaments.
The world yoga capital is considered to be the Northern Indian city Rishikesh. Nestled in the green hills along the Ganges River banks, the city which was popularized 50 years ago by the Beatles, remains a must-see destination for the yoga pilgrims who take a trip to India. Rishikesh is full of ashrams and yoga schools, visited each year by thousands of tourists.
It is believed that they were brought by Vasco da Gama at the end of 15th century, which is more than 8000 years after their birth in today's land of Mexico.
There is a mega project that was launched in the last few years – its aim was to totally turn around the ideas about this sport near the Gang River. The project is called Indian Super League and doesn't have an equivalent in the world. What is all this about?
During the 19th century, while under British rule, Bengaluru was hit by a plague epidemy that took the life of more than 3500 people. This required the construction of a sewage system and telephone lines, supporting the coordination of the operations against the plague.
In the city of Hyderabad there are many lakes called “sagar” which means “sea”. Today in Hyderabad there are more than 1300 IT companies.
It is the biggest city in the Sikkim province. Gangtok has a population of 100 000 people. Gangtok is a city with amazing nature, however the best time for visits is between March and May.
Lucknow, also known as Auad is a city in North India, largest city and a capital of the state Uttar Pradesh. Gomti river passes through the city and divides it in two parts. The population of Lucknow is around 2 million people.
On one of the eminences at 125 m height, in the center of Jodhpur is situated the Mehrangarh fortress, which was built in 15 century. It is one of the most impressive fortresses in whole India, which walls are 36m high and 21 m wide.
Shirnagar is the northernmost city of India. it is the largest city in the Kashmir valley. City of Shrinagar has gathered in itself different religions and cultures.
City of Varanasi is situated in North India. The city is popular with its numerous holy ghattas (stone steps) on the banks of the Ganges river. There are around 23 thousand surviving temples in Varanasi.
Margao is a city in South India, situated on the banks of Sal river, in the smallest state Goa. With population around 90 thousand people, Margao is the second largest and one of the oldest cities of the state. Called a door towards South Goa, Margao appears its trade and cultural capital. Coming in Margao the settlers have destroyed many of the Hindu temples, substituting them with Christian churches. At the church square Largo da Igreja is situated the church “The Holy Ghost“, which is built on the place of the ancient Damodar temple.
World-famous and in demand, because of their unique taste the spices and the aromatic mixtures help for the preparing of delicious, aromatic and healthy dishes. Dishes, which you may taste by visiting India. This may happen very quickly and easy by using Indian e-Visa, which you shall obtain within the framework of 2 up to 4 days before your journey towards the country of spices.
The spices generally are processed through:
– roasting and grinding or crushing
– stewing in grease and pressing
– whole, fresh leaves and fruits and seeds.
Masala types – Indian cuisine
For coping with the everyday stress and tension, with aggression, bad mood and depressions and for positive thinking help the spices clove, cardamom, cumin, coriander and curcuma. In India they believe, that their regular usage makes people better, positive, healthy and more even-tempered. Some of them have permanent presence in the Indian food, others are used at special occasions and in certain foods.
Most used Indian spices
The most frequently used spices in the Indian cuisine are:
– ajwain – for soups, rice, vegetables, sauces, marinades, cereals, salty paste products, an ingredient of curry
– asafoetida – in vegetable dishes, dishes with lentil, chick-peas, beans, garnishes, grilled sandwiches
– ginger – in tea, soups, legume and sauces, paste products, jams, sweets
– nutmeg – predominantly in confectionary
– macis (nutmeg blossom) – light sauces, broths, meat and stewed dishes
– leaves curry – for vegetable dishes, legumen, fish, meat, dishes with rice
– cardamom – in coffee, tea, legumen, salty dishes and desserts
– cumin- for seasoning of meat, potatoes, rice, lentil, cabbage
– coriander – in salads, soups, legumen, roasted dishes, milk/sour dishes
– clove – for soups, vegetable and rice dishes, complex dishes, sauces, biscuits, sweetmeats, syrups
– curcuma – for soups, rice and lentil, vegetables, sauces, milk beverages
– kalonji (black sesame) – in “naan” bread, in vegetable dishes, dal, rice, sweet and salty baked dishes
– nigella (love-in-a-mist) – vegetable dishes, potatoes, meat dishes, salty baked dishes
– saffron – for flavouring and as a food colouring of dishes with rice, vegetable soups, broths, dishes with fish, birds or lamb, in sweet custards, mousses, baked dishes, pastry
– black mustard seed – for mustards, marinades, piquant sauces, for preserving (packing)
– black pepper – at roasted meats
– green pepper – for seasoning of salads
– white pepper – in fish dishes
– fennel – for different types of meat, fish, tea, pastry
– fenugreek – soups and broths, fried appetizers
– bay leaf (Indian laurel-leaves) – in soups and sauces, meat dishes, in marinade
– tamarind – soups, vegetable dishes, stewed dishes, sauces, fish, desserts, sweet beverages;
All spices listed up to here, as well as many others, you may find by visiting a local shop for Indian spices. The temptation and pleasure of genuine and authentically prepared ones you may experience on your journey to India. Would it be as a tourist tour with Indian e-Tourist Visa or at a short pause while you are on a business visit with Indian e-Business Visa. Maybe it will not have a bad effect to you also a visit of India with purpose improvement of your health condition. Then you could use Indian e-Tourist Visa and combine treatment with the effect of the spices, prepared on spot in their native land.
Indian national food is one of the wonders of India, Depending on the used products and spices, conditionally the Indian cuisine can be divided by a geographical principle – East and West, North and South. Also each religious community has a specific alimentary regimen.
The establishment of the city has begun around the built fort Saint George, which is the first equipment of the colonial style. Today the fort Saint George is located in the center of the city and is a significant monument of Chennai. In the architecture of the fort are perceived features of an Indo-Saracenic style, and later of European classic. On the territory of the fort there is even a small church, built in honour of Holy Virgin Mary.
The city was established in 1835, when a British East-Indian company hired the locality, in order to create a sanatorium for its soldiers. After 1849 during the British domination, Darjeeling transformed into a tourist center. Because of the healthy climate, here come many British people, who reside in India, and also rich Indians. The first tea plantations were planted by the British settlers in 1841.
Having a walk in the city, a person attains the sensation for a religious rite – everywhere smells in incense and in every house there is a small temple, which size and decoration depend on the resources of the owners of the home.
The Jagannath temple
The Jagannath temple (Lord of the Universe) is the main temple dedicated to god Jagannath or Krishna. It is one of the four places, which the Hinduists should visit during their life. Established in 11 century, it impresses and until now by its astounding architecture. The temple has a particular meaning for the followers of the Gaudiya-Vaishnavism, since the founder of this tradition Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, was loyal to Jagannath and spent the last 16 years of his life in Puri. Every summer in June-July the Main temple Jagannath organizes the gorgeous holiday „Festival of the chariots“ Ratha Yatra. It is important for the Indians, since it helps people to restore their relationships of love and devotion towards the Supreme god. The festival Rahta Yatra continues nine days. On the first day the temple deities Jagannath, his brother Baladevi and his sister Subhadri are carried out from the temple at the street in enormous splendidly decorated chariots, which are drawn by thousands of people. The procession directs towards the “Gundicha” temple, at 3 km from the main temple. The procession symbolizes the traveling of Krishna among the people. The procession is accompanied by music and mantras (monotonous singing). The three deities remain 7 days in the “Gundicha” temple.
The ”Gundicha“ temple, known as the garden of Jagannath, is located in the center of a beautiful garden, surrounded by walls with a complex configuration. Before the deities arrive, the temple is cleaned thoroughly. The sanctuary has at its disposal a lifted platform with height 12 m and length 5,8 m. The three deities are put here during the festival Ratha Yatra and are changed in new clothes every day from their stay. The Gundicha temple has at its disposal two gates – western for entering of the gods and eastern – for departure of the deities. During the 9-day Ratha Yatra the entering of foreigners in the main temple Jagannath is forbidden, but the Gundicha temple may be visited against an entrance fee.
The Lokanat temple from 11 century is located near the Jagannath temple and is dedicated to the goddess Shiva. The unique peculiarity of this temple is that the bigger part of it is in the water. The worshippers believe that if they pray in this temple, they shall cure themselves.
The temple of the Sun, which is located in the small town Konark at 34 km from Puri is with exceptional architecture – sculptured blocks. It was built in 13 century as a giant chariot of the sun God Surya with twelve couples ornamented wheels, drawn by seven stone horses. Some of the wheels are with width 3 m. Only 6 of the 7 horses are preserved until today. Fallen apart in 17 century, the temple has been restored partially again. In the days of its greatness, the statue of the God of the Sun remained in the air with the help of an enormous magnet on the top of the statue, and another one in the basement. There used to be a diamond in the center of the sculpture, which reflected the sun beams and the atmosphere became divine and enigmatic. But what has remained in the Temple of the Sun is also impressive. Konark is visited by many tourists. The airport of the capital Bhubaneshvar of the state Orissa is at 64 km from Konark.
At 15 km from city of Puri is located the craftsman’s settlement Raghurajpur, where can be reached by a bicycle on rent or by a bus. There are 120 brick houses in Raghurajpur, in which are situated workshops of the artists, who elaborate traditional paintings and souvenirs of Orissa. Here are drawn the interesting paintings pattachitra, engravings on palm leaves are elaborated, toys and souvenirs out of а coco-nut, jute and wood. The polite hosts show with desire the whole technology of elaboration of the paintings Pattachitra. The most ancient such paintings date from 12 century. On the representations of the paintings Pattachitra may be seen scenes from the life of God Krishna and other honoured gods in India. For Pattachitra are used traditional natural materials – glue, coals, soot, organic pigments, Crustacea, Mollusca and etc. The Pattachitra painting is drawn at several stages. Firstly, the cotton fabric is processed with resin, then it is primed with chalk, after this is put mash of resin and tamarind – seeds, finally it is polished in order to be obtained a smooth surface. Afterwards it is proceeded to the drawing after a pattern with black ink. The colouring of the painting is in characteristic colours – Krishna in blue, Baladev in white, Radha and Sudhara are green, Rama is yellow. Finally the completed painting is covered by a protective compound. The price of one painting Pattachitra depends on the size and the line and it varies from 50 up to 150 dollars.
City of Puri is also famous for the long beach strip, covered with golden sand. For the lovers of fishing, some of the local fishermen offer a row inside the bay, where they throw their nets. The sunrises and sunsets of the sun here are something phenomenal, therefore there are certain places along the beach, where they can be observed.
Haridwar has abundant, ancient religious and cultural heritage. In the city can be seen old haevli, which are a magnificent example of the Indian architecture from 18 and 19 century. The ancient houses with exquisite frescos and sophisticated stone facing deserve to be seen. The city is a famous center of the ayurvedic medicine and the traditional knowledge, and along Ganges river tower great number of ancient temples, ashrams (secluded places for living) and dharamsalas (inns for worshippers). The atmosphere in Haridwar is remarkable despite the city bustle. There are seen holy cows, having a walk calmly, masses of bright red holy powder, piled on the street stands, bottles with holy water from the Ganges river and much more colourful goods. Under the shadows of the religious India-rubber plant trees have made themselves comfortable holy men-sadhu, who meditate or play a chillum (whistle).
Haridwar – one of the four holy cities
Its rulers – Hyder Ali and his son Tipu Sultan are patrons of art and culture and they have contributed about the significant cultural growth of city of Mysore, which has transformed into a cultural capital of the state Karnataka. There are 17 palaces in city of Mysore, therefore they call it the “City of the palaces”.
The city is a center for yoga, connected with the health tourism and it attracts local and foreign visitors. Mysore is most visited during the ten-day festival Desara during September-October. There are still auto-rickshas and tonga-horses as an attraction for the tourists in the city. One of the cleanest cities of India, during the last years in Mysore has also been observed growth in the industry of the information technologies. The many parks and lakes with places for rest, are one of the things, which attract in this so romantic city. The airport of Mysore is modernized, but the airline companies still meet difficulties at its servicing. One of the assumptions about the name of the city is that it is a part of the name of the demon of evil Mahisashura, which ruled the region around Mysore according to the Hindu mythology. It was killed by the goddess Chamundeshvari and in her honour has been built a temple on the top of Chamundi Hills, which is called „Mahisashura“. Thus the city has accepted the name Mahisuru, which at the British has become Mysore. In 2014 the city was renamed to Mysore.
Besides with the palaces, Mysore is famous for its sarees with own brand “Mysore“. They are elaborated of pure silk with woven golden thread.
Coming in Mysore, the tourist cannot miss to visit the Mysore palace – one of the most beautiful palaces in the world, also popular as Amba Vilas. It was designed by the British architect Henry Erwin, it was built in Indo-Arabian style between 1897 and 1912 and it is an official residence of the royal families from the Wadiyar dynasty. It occupies enormous area and it has been elaborated with such exquisiteness as if it is a fabulous creature. The palace has three floors with grey-granite walls and marble pink cupolas. Its facade has seven spacious arches and two smaller ones, which accompany the central arch, which high columns are unique. Above the central arch is raising the impressive sculpture of Gajalakshmi, an Indian goddess of the wealth, luck and abundance, and around it are shaped elephants. Observing the tradition, entering the palace the visitor should take off his/her shoes, and photographing is forbidden, so for a person there remains only the pleasure to touch this beauty.
Besides the abundant interior, in the Mysore palace there can be seen and the Arms hall. It preserves a collection of weapons, which have belonged to members of the royal family. Among them there are spears and swords from 14 century, and also weapons from the beginning of the 20 century. The collection of costumes is also interesting, but most impressive is the maharaja’s throne, which they used to put over his elephant. It is elaborated out of gold and is decorated with gems. On Saturday, Sunday and on holidays the palace Mysore is illuminated during the night by 100 thousand electric bulbs and it is very beautiful.
Festivals in the Mysore
Mysore is most visited during the festival Drasara, which continues 10 days. A center of the festivals is the Mysore palace. These festivals have been introduced by king Raja Wodeyar in 1610. The first days of the festival are accompanied by lots of dances, music, merriment, competitions in freestyle wrestling and many other attractions. On the tenth day of the festival Dasara is carried out a procession on the streets of Mysore. The idol of the goddess is put on a gilded mantle on the back of a decorated elephant, which is accompanied by music groups and other decorated elephants, camels and horses. The procession begins from the Mysore palace and continues to a specified place, where a liturgy is carried out. The festivals finish during the night by a torch parade. Indians believe that Dasara shall help them in realization of their desires.
The Jaganmohan palace initially has been a head office of the royal family. It was destroyed by a fire in 1897, and the new palace was restored in 1912. In 1915 it was transformed into an Art Gallery, which contains more than 2000 paintings. A significant part of them is of the Indian painter Raja Ravi Varma. The paintings, drawn in style “Mysore” are interesting, in which is used also golden foil at the depiction. He has studied at the Vijayngar school of arts in Mysore.
In the concert hall of the palace are organized dance performances, musical festivals and etc. cultural activities during the festival Dasara.
The church Saint Philomena is one of the biggest in India. It has been built in Gothic style, and it reminds the eminent Cologne cathedral, which with its 157 m is one of the highest cathedrals in the world. The highest part of the church Saint Philomena is 53 m. It is included in the list of UNESCO for the world cultural heritage.
Tipu Sultan’s summer palace, impressing with the architecture, the magnificent frescos and the furnishing speaks about its owner. Tipu Sultan is famous for the nickname the „Tiger of Mysore“ and is considered for one of the most educated rulers of India. He has offered fierce resistance to the British colonization in South India.
The visit of the Devaraja market, representing a colourful market-place for fruits and vegetables, is one adventure and entertainment.
The Brindavan park, which is located at 15 km from Mysore, is a gorgeous place for a walk and rest. Established in 1932, it is one beautiful jewel together with the lake and the musical fountain, which is the main attraction of the park. It is visited by 2 million tourists annually, although the admission is paid.
Mysore – the city with abundant heritage of myths, romantic stories and clean nature deserves to be visited.
The region around Kolkata (Calcutta) was populated since 2 thousand years. But the establishment of the city is connected with a British East Indian company, which built Fort William in 1699. The city has originated gradually around it. Kolkata, then Calcutta, has become a center of one of the three English territories in India. Years later the fort has been fortified, because of conflicts with France. In 1772 Calcutta became a capital of British India. But the East-Indian company assumed completely the management of the city no sooner than 1793, when the government of the local rulers was removed, called „ nabab“. The progress of the city has begun. The marshes have been drained only in several years and Calcutta has transformed into a „city-palace“.
On photo the Memorial of Queen Victoria in Kolkata.
During the 50’s of the 19 century was observed a fast industrialization, the textile industry and the processing of hide (leather) were developed. There had been built railways, post offices had appeared, in which there had already been a telegraph. Calcutta has become a cultural capital of India. The theatrical and art of cinema have developed, the city is a native place of several winners of a Nobel Prize. Even during this period Calcutta has become a center of the trade with opium in East India. Together with the flourishment of the city in all spheres of development, it has become also a center of the Indian movement for independence. The division of Bengal in 1905 led to protests and in 1911 the capital of British India was moved in Delhi. During World War II Calcutta and its port, which is one of the big river ports in India, have been bombed two times by the Japanese. The food was sent for the army, therefore in 1943 in Bengal occurred starvation. During the next years the city has declined, even the prime minister Rajiv Gandhi characterized it as a „dying city“ in 1985.
During the last years Kolkata gradually has restored its international positions as a basic business and financial center of East India and the North East Indian states. Here is located and the stock exchange of Kolkata – the second in size stock exchange in India. There are also big factories of famous Indian corporations, which production varies from electronics to jute.
The subway dated 1984 is the oldest in India, and the trams are the oldest operating electric tram system in Asia. The rickshas, drawn by people, are an attraction for the tourists. They have been forbidden many times by the authorities, but without a result – the rickshas continue to coexist with the modern automobiles and buses.
The international airport is at 16 km from Kolkata and is the only one in East India.
It is not a secret that more than 1,5 million residents of Kolkata live in ghettos. Namely because of this Mother Theresa has established the organization “Missionaries of mercy“, which engages with assistance of miserably poor people. In 1979 she received a Nobel Prize for peace and charity.
In the city of many millions the pollution of the air is a basic problem. The government strives to find a solution of this global problem and let us hope that in near future this impressive city shall look cleaner.
Landmarks in Kolkata
The main part of the landmarks of Kolkata is from the period of the British presence here. The most popular building in the city is the Memorial of Queen Victoria. This architectural masterpiece was established between 1906 and 1921, and the gardens, surrounding it, are magnificent.
The Indian museum, established in 1814 is the oldest museum in the country. City of Kolkata is proud of it. In it are accommodated big collections of paintings and objects, showing the Indian nature and arts.
The idea for the building of this construction is doctor Nathaniel Wallich’s, who gave the first exhibits in the museum. The construction of the enormous beautiful building is thanks to the Asian association in Bengal, and also to rich Europeans. The Indian collector Baba Ramkal Sen also gave a big part of his collection to the museum. In the beginning the museum had at its disposal only two sections – the one etiological and archeological and the second one – geological and zoological. After the collection of the museum had increased significantly, there was necessary to be built more premises in 1875. Today the enormous rectangular building with many arches and a fountain in the patio, is beautiful and impressive. The museum is divided in 6 sections with 35 galleries. Among the most popular exhibits is the ashes from the mortal remains of the very Buddha, skeletons of prehistoric animals, some very rare art of painting canvases and wonderful Tibetan thangkas-paintings with interesting lines.
The national library of India is located in Kolkata and it is leading in the country. The sophisticated white building with a magnificently shaped garden around it suggests tranquility and refinement.
One of the biggest tourist attractions in the city is the Kalighat Kali Temple, which is dedicated to the goddess Kali. It is located in one of the oldest residential areas of Kolkata-Kaliat. Many of the worshipers come here every day, in order to worship the goddess Kali, which representation is with a long tongue, elaborated out of gold. From the name of this temple derives and the name of the city – Calcutta. For this temple is spoken as early as 15 century, as then it was a small building. The present temple was built by family Sabisha Roy Chowdhury from Banisha in 1809 on the bank of Hugli river. But after some time the river has moved away and now the Kalighat Kali temple is located on the small channel Adi Gang, which connects the temple with Hugli river.
The Saint Pavel cathedral, also known as the English church, is one of the biggest landmarks of Kolkata. The construction of the Cathedral began in 1839 as per insisting of bishop Daniel Wilson and it continued 8 years. The cathedral was built on the analogy of the cathedral in town of Norwich in England. The white building, built in a Gothic style, popular during the time of the British government in India, is with an impressive tower with a clock, the windows are archlike, and the entrance is projected in front of the building. From the beautiful terrace above the entrance of the temple the visitor may enjoy the peace, silence and greenery of the garden. The central hall is with a rectangular shape, with a high vaulted ceiling. At the both sides are situated wooden chairs and benches for the worshippers. On the windows there are beautiful stained glasses. The Florentine fresco is interesting on one of the walls. There can be seen also paintings, depicting the apostle Pavel’s life. In the basement of the cathedral is located the tomb of bishop Wilson, the initiator for the establishment of the cathedral.
Harak bridge is the other landmark of Kolkata (Calcutta). It is one of the four bridges over Hugli river and it replaced the existing pontoon bridge, connecting the cities Hovrak and Calcutta. The Harak bridge is not only a symbol of Calcutta, but also the busiest cantilever bridge in the world. Its daily traffic is around 100 thousand automobiles and 150 thousand pedestrians. In the beginning the bridge bears the name New Howrah, but in 1965 it was renamed to Rabinda Setu, in honour of the great Bengal poet Rabindranat Tagor, the first Indian and Asian laureate of Nobel Prize. But the bridge continues to be called Harak.
The decision for the construction of the bridge was taken in 1906, but because of technical reasons, and then the outbreak of First and Second World Wars, the building of the bridge was delayed. It was finished not until 1943. In the project of the bridge there are not provided nuts and bolts, and only rivets for the whole construction. For the building of the bridge are used 27 thousand tons steel, as the bigger part of it is high-layer alloyed steel. The Harak bridge is type hung balanced cantilever with central scope 460m between the centers of the main towers, which are 85 m high. At both sides of the bridge are the pedestrian paths. The two halves of the hung chains are each with length 86m and weighing as per 2 thousand tons. For their lifting were used crawler cranes and 16 hydraulic jacks with capacity 800 tons. At the moment Harak bridge is the sixth such in the world.
In June 2005 at passing of a freighter happened a catastrophic destruction of a part of the bridge, which imposed an expensive repair. Great Britain provided the same steel, which had been used at the construction of the bridge. The repair was finished successfully in 2006.
Because of its interesting construction, Harak bridge is an arena for shooting of many films, such as „Bengal night“ from 1988, the American film „The city of joy“ in 1992, the Bengal film „The shadows of time“ and many others.
An interesting place for visit in Kolkata is the Botanical garden with the 250-year old Banyan tree.
The visit of College Street – the popular with the biggest market for antiquarian literature street, is a challenge. Here are located some of the institutes of Kolkata, and also the Indian house for coffee, a meeting place or the intellectuals of the city.
There are many holidays and festivals in Calcutta like in whole India. Durga Puja is one of the biggest Hindu festivals, dedicated to the goddess – warrior Durga, which is carried out not only in Calcutta, but in whole India on month October. Its beginning comes as early as 16 century, when the landowners from Malda and Dinajpur began to organize festivals, dedicated to the goddess-warrior. Gradually the festivals have developed into a popular festival, which continues and until nowadays. This is the most important event throughout the year in the state West Bengal, which has changed into an official holiday for India since 1910. Winning a victory over the mighty demon, the beautiful lass Durga has become a symbol for the Indians in their faith that the good shall win. Therefore, the preparation for this holiday begins months earlier. It is believed that during the six days of the festivals, Durga comes down among people and therefore she has to be welcomed properly. In Calcutta, and also in the whole country are built temporary temples -„pandalas“, the building of which is undertaken by temporary committees.
Their type varies from a tent with bamboo wands to more beautiful buildings depending on the donated resources. Clay figures of Durga are elaborated, as the clay is collected from the banks of the holy rivers and not until its sanctification it is delivered in the workshops, where they are elaborated. When they are ready, is proceeded with colouring of the clay figures. Before the eyes of the goddess are drawn, the artists keep the fast several days, as they take only vegetable food. Then the sculpture is decorated with jewelry and flowers and it is dressed in a saree, and in her hands are put the weapons of the goddess. She is put on a pedestal, around her are arranged images of a demon, goddesses and gods from the Indian ethnos. In front of the so arranged sculptures, the people present flowers, fruits, sweetmeats, water from the holy rivers and many other things, as they address prayers towards Durga. The priests sing hymns in honour of her. The festival continues several days, each one of which represents the time from the coming down of the goddess Durga to the people, when she is welcomed with music by flourishes and drums, until her departure. On the last day with a gala ceremony the statue of the goddess is brought to the river and is submerged there, as this is a symbolic returning in her home. A little before the statue to be brought out from the temporary temple, the married women of all ages sprinkle their hair with sindoor-powder in red colour or cover their face with it. They treat themselves with sweetmeats as they believe in the coming true of their wishes. This day with many flowers, many decoration, many goodies and much desire for a better life, is a day of the victory of good over evil.
It was built by Mughal emperor Shah Jahan between 1644 and 1656 at a cost of 1 million rupees, and was inaugurated by an imam from Bukhara, present-day Uzbekistan. The mosque was completed in 1656 AD with three great gates, four towers and two 40 m high minarets constructed of strips of red sandstone and white marble. The courtyard can accommodate more than 25,000 persons. There are three domes on the terrace which are surrounded by the two minarets.
Built during 13 century symbolizes the coming of Islam on these lands. The first three floors of the minaret are built out of the characteristic here construction material – red sandstone, and the top two floors are reveted with white marble. Each floor finishes with a terrace with a beautiful railing. During the next centuries each ruler has left something – a building, a sculpture, sultan’s tombs, as well as medreses – a school for learning of the Koran.
The Humayun’s tomb is remarkable with its architecture. The building, which is octagonal at its foundation, is crowned with two enormous cupolas with hemispherical form, the height of which is 38 m. The main cupola is implemented out of white and black marble. On every side of the foundation there are columns, which are forming 18 identical arches. For the building of the Humayun tomb is used red sandstone.
In the Akshardham temple there is a Hall of the valuables, where can be seen exhibits, representing events from the life of the saint Swami Narayan and his messages. By the help of light and sound effects, the visitors carry away in 18 century, which makes the visit here unique. Another interesting attraction in the Akshardham temple is one hall, in which on a screen with dimensions 30m length and 20m height, the visitors can acquaint with Swami Narayan’s life in his youth years, when he visited different regions of India.
In the megapolis Mumbai with population 18 million people, there exists an enormous gap between wealth and luxury of one stratum of population on the one hand and the poverty – on the other hand. But this does not impede people to come here in order to live with dreams in the city of the unlimited opportunities. The city became possession of Portugal in year 1534, then they remised it to the English king Charles II, as marriage portion of his fiancé Catherine de Braganza. But both countries leave their mark on the economic and cultural development of the city.