Bengaluru is a city in Southern India, the capital of the Karnataka State. With its population of more than 10 million people, Bengaluru is a megapolis – the third largest and the fifth based on density in India. Sometimes called the Silicome Valley of India, Bengaluru is a leader in the production of informaiton technologies, heavy machinery and the country’s space industry. Additionally it is known as the Garden City of India because of its greenery, wide streets and the many public parks such as Lalbagh and Cubbon Park. It is believed that Bengaluru is one of the most attractive cities for business in the Third World Countries.
The locals have been calling this place Bengaluru, which is also the official name of the city today, back from ancient times. The name Bangalore has been given to the city during the British rule. The earliest evidence for the existence of the city and the name Bengaluru are from 9th century. The discoveries and archaeological finds from the Stone Age suppose that there has been human life here around 4000 B.C.
The founder of the contemporary city is considered to be the local vassal Kempe Gowda who built a clay fortress on this place in 1537. His heir Kempe Gowda II built four defensive towers, marking the boundaries of the settlement.
During the 19th century, while under British rule, Bengaluru was hit by a plague epidemy that took the life of more than 3500 people. This required the construction of a sewage system and telephone lines, supporting the coordination of the operations against the plague. At the order of the current General-Governor of British India, Lord Curzon, in 1900 the Victoria Hospital was opened, and the houses started to be built with sanitary facilities. The motor vehicles were introduced in Bengaluru in 1903, and in 1906 the city was one of the first in India that got electricity from a hydropower plant. The Indian Institute of Science was established in 1909. It plays a major role in the scientific research of the country. The military base created here in 1806 by the British, attracted people seeking jobs from different parts of India. After the declaration of independence of India in 1947 Bengaluru became the capital of the newly declared state of Mysore, which in 1973 was renamed Karnataka. The city’s growth and urban development continued and it became a beautiful thriving city with many higher education institutions and research institutes. Many of the big IT companies chose Bengaluru for their headquarters. Their contribution to the IT exports was around 33% or in the amount of 1442 billion dollars for the period 2006-2007. The IT industry in Bengaluru is divided into 3 main clusters – Software Technology Parks of India (STPI), International Tech Park Bangalore (ITPB) and UB City. The third and fourth largest software companies in India have headquarters in Bengaluru, so do many of the companies from the SEL-CMM Level 5. The presence of such business, important for the contemporary world, required improvements in the city’s infrastructure and Bengaluru was turned into a tidy, beautiful city. The high-tech industry or the production of precious metals, necessary for the informaton technologies, were also developed. At the same time Bengaluru is a center for biotechnologies, related to India’s industry. Here are located some of the largest biotechnology companies in India, such as Biocon.
Bengaluru has been ruled by many rulers, each of whom has left something impressive in this cosmopolitan city. Many palaces, temples and parks speak of the rulers’ desires to make their city more attractive. If the visitor wants to see the most interesting landmarks of the city, it is best to hire a guide.
Tipu Sultan’s Summer palace is a beautiful example of the hindu-islamic architecture. Its construction began between the walls of the fortress during Hyder Ali’s ruling and was completed during Tipu Sultan’s domination in 1791. Later on the British used the palace for their secretariat.Today the Karnataka Government maintains this beautiful palace, located in the old city. The whole building is made of teak tree; the branches, archs and balconies are decorated with carved folklore motifs. Tipu Sultan’s throne had a golden coating and was covered in gems. Tipu Sultan swore not to use it until he defeats the British Army. After his death the British sold in parts this luxuriant throne. On the first floor of the palace is a museum with exhibits displaying Tipu Sultan’s achievements in battles. Here are kept also parts of his clothing and his crown. The wonderful garden in front of the palace is a great place for relax after the walk.
Lal Bagh Botanical Garden in Bengaluru is internationally known. It is located on an area of 240000 square meters and contains more than 1900 types of plants with French, Persian and Afghan origin. The construction of this fairy garden began during the time of Hyder Ali and was completed at the time of his son Tipu Sultan. On the territory of the garden you can see the famous Glass House from 1889, built by John Cameron, inspired by the Crystal Palace in London. Twice per year, on January 26th and on August 15th, the Glass House hosts the International Flower Show. The aquarium and the lake complement the beauty of this exotic place. In the garden you can see some rare birds, such as myna, crows, brahmini kite, pond heron and others.
The Bangalore Palace, located in the city center on an area of 45 thousand square meters, is one of the largest and most unique palaces in India. Its construction began in 1874 and was built in only four years in a Tudor style architecture, where the used materials are stone, brick and wood. It is said that the palace looks like Windsor Castle in England. Located on the ground floor of the palace is the ball room, where the receptions were held. Located on the first floor is the sophisticated Durbar Hall, which can be reached through a beautifully decorated staircase. The yellow color dominates in the hall, the walls are decorated with many paintings. It is considered that the masters of the palace were passionate hunters, who hunted even tigers and elephants. One such trophy of an elephant head is exposed on the inside of the entrance door. The 35 rooms, the towers and the battlements contribute to the beauty and grace of the palace. The Bangalore Palace can be a great place for visiting.
HAL Aerospace Museum, located on Airport-Varthur road in Bengaluru, is the first aerospace museum in India. It was created in 2001 and is part of the HAL Heritage Center. The museum represents the history and development of the Indian aviation industry in the period of 60 years. Here the visitor can see different airplanes and helicopters, models of airplane engines, flight simulator, English bomber with electricity powered drive and others. There is also a documents exhibition of the Indian aviation history. It is maintained by HAL – one of the biggest aviation companies in India.
One of the most mysterious energy places in the world is the Palmleaf Library in Bengaluru – a huge impressive building. Its founder is considered to be the wise man Shuka Nadi who received insight and started to record all human acts and manifestations, linking them with the stars and the specific time 5000 years ago on palm leaves. Currently there are 3655 such volumes , and in each of them there are 365 palm leaves. Each leaf, 14 cm long and 6 cm wide has writings on both sides in ancient Tamil language, the size of the letters is around half millimeter. The library is visited not only by Indians, but by people from the whole world, who wish to know their past and their mission on Earth. They can learn all that from the text on the palm leaf.
Vidhana Soudha is the seat of the state legislature. This granite building is among the most impressive ones not only in Bengaluru, but in whole India. On one of its entrances there are 12 twelve-meter tall columns. The lobby can be reached through 45 stairs with 60 meters width. The majestive building, with four floors and one underground floor, is very beautifully lit on Sunday and official holidays’ evenings.
The Indians believe in reincarnation and that one of the many gods that they worship will bring them a happier life. That’s why in Bengaluru, and in the other cities in India, there are many temples. One of them is the Shiva Temple, where the visitor can see a statue of Shiva carved in a monolithic stone. It is placed in the middle of an artificial lake. There is a tunnel behind the statue – it is believed that the brave people who can pass through it will enjoy good health.
The Nageshvara temple complex is located in the small village of Begur, close to Bengaluru. Within the complex there are several sanctuaries built in the time of different dynasties. In one of them there is an inscription from 890 that describes a “Bengaluru war”. This is the earliest evidence of the existence of Bengaluru.
St. Mary’s Basilica is the oldest church in Bengaluru, and the only one in the state of Karnataka, rasied to the rank of a small Basilica. Built in a Gothic style with many arches and tall tops of the domes, it can be seen from a distance. The ornaments and stained glass on the church windows are impressive. Many believers from the whole region come here for worship during St. Mary’s feast. The festivities last 10 days and end with a magnificent chariot procession on the last day.
In such a large city like Bengaluru, apart from all the pretty and shiny shops, buildings and offices, there are also many ghettos where many poor Indians live. Even though the city authorities try to make the conditions of life in ghettos better, this is almost impossible.
But Bengaluru is worth visiting. It is serviced by the Kempegowda International Airport, around 40km from the city center. It is the third busiest airprot in India, after the ones in Delhi and Mumbai. The metro, operating since 2017, provides access to the airport. The bus transport is good. The busses of the company Bangalore Metropolitan Transport Corporation are luxurious, air conditioned and provide transportation through the major routes of the city with population of ten million people, including to the airport.